The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards which are bestowed in several fields. As per the will of Alfred Nobel, five Nobel prizes were established in 1895. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Peace and Literature were awarded in 1901 for the first time. In 1968, Sweden’s central bank Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. This is although not a Nobel Prize but informally known as “Nobel Prize in Economics”. Before we discuss Nobel Prize 2018 winners, let’s know about Alfred Nobel.
The Man behind the Nobel Prize: Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel was an inventor, entrepreneur, scientist and businessman who also wrote poetry and drama. He was known for inventing dynamite and he was the holder of about 355 patients. His varied interests are reflected in the prize he established. He was born in 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, while died in 1896. Before his death, he laid the foundation of Nobel Prize in 1895. In his will, he left about 1,941 crore rupees (as per today) to fund the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously (after death) to anyone. However, if a person is awarded the prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. A Nobel Prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.
Categories in which the Nobel Prize is given
Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been honouring men and women from around the world for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and for work in peace. The Nobel Prize given for contribution in the field of economics was given in 1969 for the first time.
Nobel Prize Winners of 2018
The Nobel Prizes are awarded in five categories this year, while Nobel Prize in the field of Literature is not awarded to anyone this year. The Swedish Academy, which organizes the Nobel Prize in Literature, announced that it will not award the 2018’s Nobel Prize in Literature due to sex abuse allegations that have raised turmoil among the academy members and cast critical light upon the prestigious annual award. The Swedish Academy said that it plans to award the prize next year. However, the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Peace and Economics are as:
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Nobel Prize in Medicine 2018
Nobel Prize in Peace 2018
Nobel Prize in Economics 2018
How much money is given to Nobel laureates?
On 27 November 1895, a year before his death, Alfred Nobel signed the famous will that most of his estate which is more than 1,941 crore rupees (today’s value) should be converted into a fund and invested in “safe securities.”
The income from the investments was to be “distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.”
The Nobel Prize amount for 2017 was set at Swedish krone (SEK) 9.0 million (about 7.22 crore rupees as per today) per full Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize money may be shared among the winners in any ratio depending upon their contribution.
Indian Nobel laureates
Rabindranath Tagore in 1913
Rabindranath Tagore won The Nobel Prize in Literature.
CV Raman in 1930
CV Raman won The Nobel Prize in Physics.
Mother Teresa in 1979
Mother Teresa won The Nobel Peace Prize.
Amartya Sen in 1998
Amartya Sen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences “for his contributions to welfare economics”.
Kailash Satyarthi in 2014
Kailash Satyarthi won The Nobel Peace Prize.
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